Word Origins: People
Anise is a French name meaning "aniseed", which is a type of herb.
Tatlin is a Russian surname. One famous Tatlin is Vladimir Tatlin, who was a renowned early 20th century Russian artist.
Cantor (which is Anise's level in the Order) refers to those that chant songs.
From the Italian word, "arietta", which means a short aria or a breeze.
From the Italian word, "aria", which used to mean air, atmosphere, a song. A solo with musical instruments accompanying. It is also the song sung in opera when the character wants to declare his/her love.
From the Italian word, "acceso", which means burning and vibrant.
From the Italian word, "assai", which means very and extremely.
From the English word, "ash", which means the powdery residue of matter that remains after burning. Highlight for spoiler speculation: [(Could this be a hint at "what" gets "left behind" in the ending?!)]
From Norse mythology, "Tree of Tonelico (aka Yggdrasil)", which is the tree that supports the world. (Could this be a relation with Symphonia?)
From a tree name, "Ash/Japanese Ash".
Asch shares his name with from one of Schumann's pieces, but it is most likely simply from the German for ash, "Asche", which has an "uh" sound at the end. Schumann likely got the name from an at the time German town. It's also a German surname.
Dist (Safil Wyon Nath/Dist Ortion Neis)
From the English word, "distortion", which means to give a false, perverted, or disproportionate meaning to.
[NOTE: His middle name Wyon is the same as the Ortion Cavern in Japanese. (Read: Ortion Cavern) There is a difference between the English and the Japanese because the English version used the word "distortion" and broke it into half; whereas, the Japanese version is probably intending to have a pun on his last name, "ne-i-su" (Nath), which mean "a sleeping chair".]
Guy Cecil (Gailardia Garan Gardios)
From a flower genus called, "Gaillardia", which is commonly referred as blanket flowers for having red or yellow florets grouped into large solitary flower heads. In flower language, this means cooperation and unity.
Cecil from Latin and Old Welsh, meaning "blind; sixth".
Cecil is also similar to another character's surname, Cecille.
Ion is a Basque and Romanian form of the name John, meaning "God is gracious".
Ion is an ancient Greek play by Euripides, thought to be written between 414 and 412 BC. It follows the orphan Ion in the discovery of his origins. (An external link is available at wikipedia about the play's plotline.)
In Latin, Ionas, which is a form of the name of the prophet "Jonah", means "dove".
The Ionian Mode is a musical term having great similarity to his name (see Tear and Van for the other two modes).
From the name of a gem, "Jade", that comprises of both jadeite and nephrite that can often be seen as ornaments and carvings. (But jadeite is the harder stone and it is much more expensive than nephrite.)
The last name, "Curtiss", is a deriviation of the English word, "courtesy", which means excellence of manners and polite behavior.
From the Italian word used in music, "largo", which means slow, broad manner.
From the French word, "rigoureux", which means stringent (or rigorous).
From the English word, "regret", which means to feel sorrow for.
Luke fon Fabre
From a name in Greek, "Lucas", which means from Lucanus, a place in Italy.
From a name in Latin, "Lucian", which means light.
Luke's "fon" is likely from the German "von" (pronounced the same), which means "from".
An inference from the von reference is that Fabre could be a place (though Fabre means "smith" in French, which can imply fire).
"Herzog" is in Duke Fabre's full name and is also German.
[NOTE: In Abyss, Luke's name in Ancient Ispania means "The Light of Holy Flame" and Ispania is another word to refer to Spain. After finding its Italian meaning, and derive it into Latin, it coincides with the game definition.]
Probably from the Prophet Moses?
Maestro means "master" in Italian, and in English; it is used for masters of an artistic field who can teach.
A conductor of an orchestra is also called a maestro.
Natalia Luzu Kimlasca Lanvaldear
From a very common name in Slavic and Russian region, "Nataliya", which means natural. (Ironically, Fujishima mentioned how he worked so hard to make her design looks natural as a princess and an adventurer at the same time.)
Natalia is based off the Latin word (dies) natalis, meaning "birthday" specifically, but in Church Latin it means "Christmas Day". So, the name has now been taken to mean: "born on Christmas Day".
Luzu is the name of a disciple of Mazu, which both came from a Buddhist story/talk.
Kimlasca's origin is forementioned in Places/Objects.
Lanvaldear is probably based off a state in Italy called Lombardia.
Peony Upala Malkuth
From a flower genus called, "Paeonia", its flower language means a regal presence and behaviour, nobility and richness.
From the Sanscrit word, "upala", which means precious stone and honorable gem.
From Baruch Spinoza: "a Jewish lensmaker and philosopher who reasoned that God and the material world were indistinguishable". He believed that human minds were part of God's mind, that one became closer to God by understanding the universe (info and quote from Einstein's Universe: The Layperson's Guide, by Nigel Calder).
From the English word, "synchronization", which means to occur at the same time or coincide or agree in time.
From the English word, "sink", which means to fall, drop, or descend gradually to a lower level.
[NOTE: (vague spoilers; select to see) It was mentioned in Shiro no Ashita that Sync's name came from the word "synchron", which Sync kept on repeating when he met Van at Mt. Zaleho.]
Tear Grants (Mystearica Aura Fende)
From a Spanish name, "Tea", a deriviation of the name, "Dorotea", which means a gift from god.
From a Greek name, "Tia", which means princess. (In a sense she is a princess because she and Van are the last of the Fende family.)
Aura probably comes from the latin name, "Ora", which means pray.
Tear is from the English, because of the symbolic meaning behind it.
Mystearica is a combo of Tear and Mysterious.
Tear is a nickname derived from her full name (as is Van from Vandesdelca)
She was a Locrian Sergeant, which comes from Locrian Mode in music (see Ion and Van for the other two modes).
Cantor (which is Tear's level in the Order) refers to those that chant songs.
Van Grants (Vandesdelca Musto Fende)
From the French word, "avant-garde", which means stylish or pop (music). This coincides with what Fujishima said about Van's clothing design.
From the French word, "avant", which means before or in front of.
From military term, "van", which means the one who guides. This is interesting because he is supposed to be the one to "guide" people according to the Scores.
Van was a Dorian General, which comes from Dorian Mode in music (see Tear and Ion for the other two modes)